Beijing (/ˌ bɪ ˈʒ ɪ /BAY-jing pronunciation in Mandarin: [èɪ.tɕ í]( sq), alternative romance written Peking (theˌp ɪ to thesre-king), is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the world's most populous cities of more than 21 million people. The metropolis town in northern China is a municipality under the direct control of the Chinese central government of 16 urban, suburban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei province except the southeastern part of the Tianjin municipality. The three administrative divisions (Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, formerly known as the "Ji province" 冀州, Jì Zhōu and are usually rated "ji" Angola) jointly forming the Jing-Jin-Ji Megalopolis (or often written by the JJJ) and become China's national capital territory.
Top: Beijing Unified Business Area
Middle first: The Gate of Forbidden City from the direction of Tianmen Square and the Great Wall of Badaling (right)
Middle second: Beijing and Kuil Langit National Stadium (right)
Bottom:Great Hall of the People and the National Theater (Right)
Beijing Municipality Location in China
|Coordinates (Tianmen Square): 39°54 ′ 24 N ″ 116°23 ′ 51 E/39,9067°N 116,39750°E / 39,90667; 116,39750 Coordinates: 39°54 ′ 24 N ″ 116°23 ′ 51 E/39,9067°N 116,39750°E / 39,90667; 116,397.50|
|State||People's Republic of China|
|Founded||1045 BC (Zhou dynasty)|
- county level
- Municipality of municipality
289 municipalities and villages
|· Party Committee Secretary||Jai|
|· Congress Chairman||Li Wei|
|· Conference Chairman||Ji-Lin|
|· Municipalities||16.410.5km2 (6.3,361sq mi)|
| · City|
|· Villages||12.266.5km2 (4.7,361sq mi)|
|Altitude||43.5m (1.427 ft)|
|· Density||1.3/km2 ( 3.4/sq mi)|
| · City|
| · Metro|
|· Rank in China||Population: 27th;|
|Main Tribe Main|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-BJ|
|- Total||¥3.5 trillion|
|- Per capita||¥162.257|
$46.433(KKB) (number 1)
|- GDP growth||▲ 6.6%|
|IPM (2018)||0,894 (number 1) - very high|
|Vehicle registration plate||京A, C, E, F, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, Y|
京G (outside urban areas)
京O, D (police and authority)
|Abbreviation||BJ / 京 (title)|
|Urban typical tree||Oriental Arborvitae (Platycladus orientalist)|
|pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)|
|Urban flower||Chinese rose (Rosa chinensis)|
|Seruni (Chrysanthemum morifolium)|
|Website||The Beijing Official Website International - eBeijing.gov.cn (in English)|
|"Beijing" is written in regular Han script|
|Literal meaning:||"North Capital"|
As a megakota, Beijing is China's second-largest city after Shanghai in terms of population sizes, more than Beijing is a political, cultural and national education center. Beijing is home to the headquarters of four largest financial institutions in the world and large companies owned by China and home to a number of world-class companies that make up the annual Fortune Global 500 list. Beijing also is the main center of national highways, controlled freeways, railway lines and speed rail networks. Beijing's Capital International Airport became the second busiest airport in the world by many passenger traffic since 2010 and Beijing subway has been the busiest and longest-running subway network in the world per 2016.
With a combination of modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world rich in the historic hazard anah since three millennia ago. As the last of China's Four Ancient Capital, Beijing has been China's political center for the past eight centuries and is the largest city in the world based on population for most of the second millennium. The Encyclopedia æ noted that "few cities in the world have been the political and cultural hub for a long period of time from an immense area such as China". With the mountains surrounding its city on its three sides and the inner and outer city walls, Beijing's position is poised to become the emperor's home and the perfect location as the imperial capital. The city is famous for its luxurious palaces, temples, gardens, gardens, tombs, walls and gates. Beijing has seven World Heritage Sites, the Forbidden City, the Sky Kuil, the Summer Palace, the Ming Dynasty Tomb, Zhoukoudian and parts of the Great Wall and the Great Canal - all the tourist attractions. Siheyuan, China's traditional housing style and the forest with small gangs, is a popular and important tourist spot in Beijing.
Many of the 91 universities in Beijing occupy the best universities in China consistently, such as Peking University and Tsinghua University. The Beijing CBD region is a center for Beijing's economic expansion filled with skyscrapers both operational and under-built. China's Silicon Valley-produced Zhongguancun has become the region of the center of scientific, technological and entrepreneurship.
For more than 3,000 years, Beijing has had other names. "Beijing" means "the northern capital" (from the Han 北 means north and the shoal means the "capital city" used as the name of the city in 1403 during the Ming Dynasty to distinguish it from Nanjing ("southern capital").
The spelling in English is based on the Pinyin romanization of the two texts as pronounced in standard Mandarin. The longer English spelling of Peking is the romantic postal of the same two scripts spoken in the local dialect used in the southern Chinese port cities as the first place visited by European and missionary traders. The dialects conserve the deciphering of the Chinese language that 京 is pronounced by kjaeng before phonetic shift in the northern dialect becomes evaporation as it is today.
The acronym shorthand for Beijing is 京 is like it's written in the license plate in the city. The official Latin alphabet for Beijing is "BJ."
While Peking is no longer the common name for the city and is being rarely used, some old sites and city facilities such as Beijing's Capital International Airport require an IATA code "PEK" and Peking University, are still using Peking's word.
Peking's words and writing came from French missionaries four hundred years ago in accordance with older pronunciation, ahead of the next sound change in Mandarin from [ʲ] to [ɕ]. ([ɕ] represented in Pinyin to j as in Beijing.
Beijing city has had several major changes to its name. During the Jin Dynasty named Zhongdu (都中) then under the Mongol Yuan Dadu was called Dadu (都) in Mandarin or Daiduaccording to Mongol pronunciation. Also known as Mongolia's Khanbaliq (八汗) spelled and written by Cambuluc in the record of Marco Polo. Twice in the city's history, its name was changed from Beijing to Beiping (Peiping) Pinyin: ě; Wade-Giles: Pei-p'ing, literally means "Northern Peace." The first change occurred under Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, after which it was in 1928 by the intang government of the Republic of China.
In some instances, the rename is by removing 京 (jing or king) which means "capital", to menandakan that the national capital has moved to Nanjing. The city's name also changed twice from Beiping (Peiping) to Beijing (Peking), the first under Yongle Emperor of Ming Dynasty to move the capital from Nanjing to Beijing and the second in 1949 when the Communist Party of China made Beijing the capital of China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
The initial prints of the human settlements in Beijing's city were found in caves located on Naga Tulang near the village of Zhoukoudian in the Fangshan district of which Peking Mankind once lived. The Homo erectus fossils found in these caves ages around 230,000 to 250,000 years ago. Homo sapiens of the Paleolithic era were also found there, and was predicted around 27,000 years ago. The archeologists have found a neolithic settlement throughout the city, including in Wangfujing, which lies in the heart of Beijing.
The first big city in Beijing was the Jicheng, the capital city of Ji which was built in 1045 BC. Now Jicheng is in the vicinity of Guang'anmen, south of Xicheng District. These settlements were then conquered by the Yan states and made the capital.
Early Chinese Empire
After the First Emperor united China, Jicheng became the capital of the region's prefecture. During the Three Kingdoms, Jicheng was managed by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling into the hands of Cao Cao from the Kingdom of Wei. In the third century, West Jin decreased the city of Jicheng and was replaced by neighboring Zhuozhou who is the capital.
During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when the northern Chinese territory was conquered and divided by Wu Hu, though only short Jicheng had been Xianbei's capital for the early Yan kingdom.
After China was reunited during the Sui Dynasty, Jicheng became Zhuo Komanderi area in the northern tip of the Great Canal. During the Tang Dynasty, Jicheng became You Prefecture that served as the center of military command on the border. During the An Shi insurgency at the end of the Tang Dynasty, a local military commander founded their own short-lived dynasty and renamed the Jincheng city to Yanjing or "Yan capital". In 938, after the collapse of the Tang Dynasty, the Final Jin surrendered the entire northern border to Khitan, the Liao Dynasty that incurred the city as Nanjing or "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals that complemented the "Great Capital" of Shangjing (now known as Bairin's Left Panji in Inner Mongolia). Several old buildings still survived in Beijing came from the Liao Dynasty period including the Tianning Pagoda.
The Liao dynasty was demolished by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty in 1122 which initially gave the city of Jicheng to the Song dynasty but was retaken in 1125 in the conquest of northern China. In 1153, Jurchen Jin made Jicheng a "Central Capital" or called Zhongdu. Mongolian Soldier Jenghis Khan encircled the city of Jicheng during an ambush in 1213 and Jicheng was ground two years later.
After two generations passed, the Kublai Khan ordered to build the Dadu (大都, literally "big city", the Mongols call it the Daidu, generally called Khanbaliq and in the record of Marco Polo being written "Cambuluc") which is the new capital for the Yuan Dynasty in the former Zhongdu Dynasty. Construction continued from 1264 to 1293 and has had a positive impact on the development of cities in northern China. The site of Dadu is based in Gulou, somewhat north of the city of Beijing at the moment, spans from Adimarga Chang'an to the northern part of Line 10, Beijing Subway. The remains of a Yuan wall made of compressed land still exist today and is called "Tucheng" (土城, literally "the wall of the earth").
In 1368, after declaring the Hongwu era from the Ming Dynasty, rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang sent troops to Khanbaliq and conquered him. Yuan renamed Dadu the capital Dadu is becoming Beiping used in supplying the need for military garrison in the region as it continues to occupy Shangdu and Mongolia. Under the Hongwu Emperor's feodal policy, the area was given to one of his son, Zhu Di, a Yan "Prince".
Zhu Biao's heir to Zhu Yuanzhang died at the age of 36 in 1392, her death was premature in the direction of her death. The title race was finally won by Zhu Di and he declared the new Yongle era. As a result of his brutal treatment against Ming's then-residents at Yingtian (now known as Nanjing) left many residents with their leave from Yingtian, so Zhi Di determined and built her fiefree region into the new capital. The city of Beiping was renamed Beijing (the capital of northern) or Shuntian in 1403. The construction of a new imperial compound called the Forbidden City was carried out from 1406 to 1420, and it was also built by several other main buildings, such as the Sky and Tianmen Kuil. On October 28, 1420, Beijing's city was officially named the capital of the Ming Dynasty the same year when the Forbidden City as the imperial compound was finished. Beijing was imperial capital and Yingtian or Nanjing was second capital (southern capital) became its second capital. (Hongxi son Zhu Di son in 1425 ordered the capital to be returned to Nanjing, but this command was never executed because Hongxi Emperor died in the following month, possibly because of a heart attack. He was buried, like most Ming emperors, in the Ming Dynasty Tomb built in detail in northern Beijing).
In the 15th century, Beijing had basically formed the way it is. Ming's city walls continue to stand firm up to modern times even though most have been torn down for the construction of the 2nd Circular Road. It is generally believed that Beijing is the largest city in the world in most 15th, 16, 17 and 18 centuries. The first known church in Beijing was built up in a Catholic mission in 1652 in the former Matteo Ricci chapel, then the Cathedral of the Immaculate or commonly called the Nallele Cathedral was also built on the same site.
A rebellion of the Li Zicheng who had held Beijing in 1644 ended the Ming Dynasty, but Li Zicheng with his short-lived Shun dynasty fled the city without resistance as Dorgon Manchu's troops attacked Beijing 40 days later.
Dorgon founded the Qing dynasty as a direct successor to the Ming Dynasty (deleg legitimacy Li Zicheng and his blurry followers) and Beijing becomes China's single capital. The Qing emperor made some modifications to the Imperial House but most Ming buildings and space is still largely maintained. Manchu's initial facility was introduced, but Qing's government still allows Han people to perform its traditional religious rituals. Bulletin boards or various signs, were written in bilingual or Mandarin. Beijing's initial condition in the Qing dynasty was from a Chinese novel called the Red Ward Dream. The Emperor Qing constructed several grandiose parks including the Old Summer Palace and Yuan Summer Palace (Yihe) in the northwest of the city.
As the Second Opium War erupted, Anglo-French troops snatched the Beijing suburbs and looted and burned the Old Summer Palace in 1860. The Peking Convention ended the war, the Western powers of its first time receiving the right to establish a permanent diplomatic region in Beijing.
On August 14-15, 1900 the Battle of Peking was part of the Boxer Rebellion aimed at destroying the Western diplomatic region including the Christian Chinese. The insurgency lashed by the "boxer" (a name given by the Western alliance for "yìhéquán" in Mandarin), sparking the arrival of foreign forces. During the battle, several key buildings were destroyed and damaged, including the Hanlin Academy and the Summer Palace. Eventually a peace agreement was agreed between the Eight-Nation Alliance and the Chinese government represented by Li Hung-chang and Prince Ching on September 7, 1901. The agreement calls for China to pay compensation by US$. 335 million (about US$. Four billion exchange rates now) plus 39 years of interest. In addition, the Eight-Nation Alliance also demanded that Chinese government officials supporting Boxer's uprisings be executed or exiled and the destruction of other strongholds and defenses that exist in most of the northern Chinese territory. Ten days after the agreement was signed, foreign troops left Peking but the embassy region is still guarded until World War II.
By pocketing the agreement, Empress mais Empress Cixi widow returned to Peking from its ceremonial "inspection tour" on January 7, 1902 and the Qing Dynasty still stands despite much weaker kondisinya due to the Boxer Uprising and a duty of paying compensation to the Eight Kingdoms. The mais Empress Dowager Empress Cixi died in 1908 and the Qing Dynasty also followed, collapsed in 1911.
Republic of China
The Xinhai Revolution of 1911 tried to replace the rule of the Qing Dynasty into a republic state and its pemimp like Sun Yat-sen initially intended to bring the capital back to Nanjing. After General Qing Yuan Shikai succeeded in pushing ahead with forcing the resignation of last emperor Qing Puyi, the revolutionaries Yuan to become president of the new Chinese Republic. Yuan continues to maintain Beijing as the capital of China and rapidly consolidate power, he also raised himself to emperor in 1915, but his death less than a year after becoming "emperor", led China to be under the control of warlords leading its respective regional forces. Following the success of the North Expedition launched by the Quomo intang nationalist party, the capital was officially moved to Nanjing in 1928, then on June 28 of the same year, Beijing's name was changed to Beiping (it was written "Peiping").
On July 7, 1937, the 29th Army exchanged fire at the Marco Polo Bridge near Fort Wanping with the Japanese Imperial Japanese Army made in China. The incident was called the Marco Polo Bridge Incident that sparked the Second Sino-Japanese War followed by the eruption of World War II. During the war, Beijing fell to Japanese on July 29, 1937 and was the capital of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet government which ruled Han ethnic governments in the Japanese-occupied North China region. The government later joined the larger and Nanjing-based Wang Jingwei government.
People's Republic of China
In the latest phase of China's Civil War, the People's Liberation Army assumed control of Beijing's city in the war of Pingjin which ended without resistance Jan. 31, 1949, then on Oct. 1, that year also came from over Tianmen, Mao Zedong announced the establishment of the People's Republic of China. He renamed the city and made it the capital of China, a real decision that had been taken only a few days earlier by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
In the 1950s, the city began to grow to a distance out of an old city surrounded by walls and neighborhoods, building heavy industries in the west and in housing neighborhoods in the north. Many Beijing's city walls were collapsed in the 1960s to build Beijing Subway and the 2nd Rim Street.
During the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guard movement began from Beijing and the urban government workers were targeted first. In the fall of 1966, all schools closed and more than a million Red Guards coming from all over China gathered in Beijing and were greeted by Mao Zedong and other leaders who followed up with protests and joint rallies in Tianmen Square.
In April 1976, a large mob gathered to fight the Four Groups and oppose the Cultural Revolution at Tiananmen Square which was later dissolved by force. October 1976, Group Four was arrested in Zhongnanhai and the Cultural Revolution ended. In December 1978, convened the 3rd Pari Committee of the 11th Central Committee under the leadership of Deng Xia oping that restored the verdict against victims of the Cultural Revolution and instituted "bukaan reform and order policies."
Since the early 1980s, Beijing's urban region had boomed after the 1981st Annual Street construction of its 28th Ring Road and added a 3rd, 4th, 5th Circle road to 6th Ring Street. According to a 2005 newspaper report, Beijing's newly developed size is one-and-a-half times larger than before. Wangfujing and Xidan have grown into a shopping district while Zhongguancun has become China's main electronic center. In the past few years, the expansion of Beijing's city has led to some urbanization-related problems such as traffic jams, air pollution, the loss of the historical region and the wave of migrant workers from a significant rural area. Beijing also is home to many significant events in modern Chinese history especially the 1989 Tianmen protests. Beijing hosted the international samentaries, including the 2008 Summer Olympics events, the 2015 Athletic World Championships and was selected as the host of the 2022 Winter Olympics, making it the first city to ever host the Winter and Summer Olympics.
Beijing is situated at the north end of the triangular China Plain that spans south and east toward the city. The mountains, north and west, protect the city while Beijing's agricultural heart is in the rising north of the desert. The northwestern region, especially Yanqing District and Huairou District are dominated by the Jundu Mountains, while the western part is frame by Xishan or Western Hills. The Great Wall in the north is built on a rough topography as a defense against the nomadic attack. Dongling Mountains, in the West Hills, bordering Hebei province, are the highest point in Beijing's municipality at md height of 2,303 pl.
Big rivers flow through Beijing including Chaobai, Yongding and Juma, all the children of the Hai River that flow southeast. The Miyun Dam, on the upper reaches of the Chaobai River, is the biggest dam in Beijing. Beijing also is the northern tip of the Great Canal heading toward Hangzhou, built more than 1,400 years ago as a transportation route and the South-North Water Transfer Project which began in the last decade to carry water from the Yangtze River basin.
The southern urban terrain of Beijing is about 40 to 60 meters high, its portions are relatively small but widespread from municipalities. Beijing has a layered circular road. The 2nd Ring Road surrounds the wall of the old city and 6th Ring Road connecting satellite cities in the surrounding city. Tiananmen and Tiananmen Square were in the heart of Beijing, just south of the forbidden City of former Chinese emperor. On the west of Tianmen are Zhongnanhai, the homes of current Chinese leaders. Adimarga Chang'an who cut Tiananmen with Tiananmen Square formed a main east-west axis of Beijing.
These are three architectural styles dominan in Beijing. First, the traditional architecture of the empire of China, the best example is Tiananmen (Heavenly Peace Gate), which features the great building of the People's Republic of China, the Forbidden City, the Kuil of the Imperial Circle and Kuil. Secondly, "Sino-Sov"-style structures with rather grid-shaped structures, were constructed between 1950s and 1970s but are often constructed by bad construction. The latest is modern architecture, the most striking feature of CBD Beijing, east Beijing such as CCTV Headquarters and other buildings around the city center including Beijing National Stadium and the National Theater.
Since 2007, buildings in Beijing have received the honor of the CTBUH Skyscraper Award for the best overall category of high-construction, which is for the Linked Hybrid building in 2009 and the CCTV Headquarters in 2013. The best overall category of high buildings is only given to one worldwide building every year by the CTBUH Skyscraper award.
By the beginning of the 21st century, Beijing has experienced tremendous growth in the construction of new buildings, featuring modern styles of international architects's most striking styles in the Beijing CBD region. The combination of design in the 1950s and neofuturistic architecture is seen in the 798 Art Zone that combines with the old style of the new one. The highest building in Beijing is the CITIC Tower, usually known as the 528-meter Chinese Zun, was the 330-meter World Trade Center in China's World Trade Center. Both are in CBD Beijing.
Beijing is well-known in a home model called siheyuan, a large dwarf placed in the rectangular area surrounded by other buildings. The famous siheyuan example is the Home of Prince Gong and Kedi Soong Ching-ling. Siheyuan usually connects to narrow alleys called forest, which are generally going back east to west, so doors go north and south in accordance with Feng Shui. They vary, and there's some that's very narrow for just one to two pedestrians who can walk across at the same time. In the past, siheyuan and hutong were everywhere throughout Beijing, but now quickly disappeared because they had been replaced by high-level building buildings. The outraged forestry people are entitled to live in a new apartment building, at least the same size that they used to live in. However, many complain that the feeling of traditional communities and forest-like street life remains irreplaceable, in addition to the apartment units they occupy now generally belong to the government rather than on behalf of private.
It has a rather dry climate that is affected by the climate of the damp continent (Köppen DWA climate classification), marked by a very hot and humid summer because of brief but very cold winter winds that reflect a huge influence on Siberian anticyclones. In spring, a sandstorm could come from the Gobi Desert across Mongolia's steam with rapid and generally dry heat conditions. It's spring-similar, it's spring season with minimum rainfall. The monthly average temperature in January is -3.7°C (25.3°F), July is about 26.2°C (79.2°F). An average precipitation of about 570 mm (22 in a year, with almost three quarters of the total falling to earth in the form of rain water from June to August. The percentage of possible monthly sunlight ranges from 47% in July to 65% in January and February, the city receives 2,671 hours of bright sun each year. Extreme weather since 1951 was -27.4°C in the winter of February 22, 1966 and 41.9°C in the summer of July 24, 1999 (unofficial record shows 42.6°C in the summer of June 15, 1942).
|Beijing's climate data (normal 1971-2000, extreme 1951-present)|
|Month||of Neh||Feb||of Gen||Apr||May||Jun||Jul||Aug||Hedar||Oct||Nov||of Dec||Year|
|°C highest record (°)||14:3 |
|9:5 PM |
|3:5 PM |
|35:00 PM |
|1:3 PM |
|9:5 PM |
|°C highest average (°)||1.8 |
|3:20 PM |
|5:00 PM |
|9:7 p.m. |
|Lowest average°C (°)||-8.4 |
|1:6 PM |
|2:00 PM |
|Low°C record (°)||-22.8 |
|mm precipitation (inches)||1.7 |
|1:21 p.m. |
|159:7 p.m. |
|1:8 PM |
|The average rainy day or snowing (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.8||1.3||1.3||4.3||5.8||9.7||1:6 PM||12:00 PM||7.6||5:0||3:5||1.7||70:6|
|% of humidity||44||44||46||46||53||61||75||77||68||61||57||49||56:8|
|Monthly sunlight average||194:1||194.7||1:8 PM||1:9 p.m.||283:4||261:4||12:4 PM||9:20 PM||9:12 p.m.||222:1||185:3||180:7||2,670.8|
|Possible sunshine (percent)||65||65||63||64||64||59||47||52||63||64||62||62||60|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration, China Meteorological Data Sharing System, the highest record all time, the highest record of May, and Weather Atlas|
Beijing has a long history of environmental issues. Between 2000 and 2009, Beijing's urban region increased four times, not only raising anthropogenic emissions, but also fundamentally changing the meteorological situation, even if not including public waste gas emissions. For example, the albedo surface, wind speed and humidity near the surface decrease while the soil surface and air temperature close to the surface include dilution of vertical and ozone air increases. The impact of the combined factors between urbanization and pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels, Beijing often has serious environmental problems causing health problems for its people. In 2013, the smog hit Beijing and most of the northern Chinese region affected 600 million people. After this "shocking pollution" incident, air pollution became an important economic and social problem in China. The Beijing government announced measures to reduce air pollution, for example by lowering coal share from 24% in 2012 to 10% in 2017, while the central government ordered the very pollution vehicles removed from 2015 to 2017 and increased the effort to transition the energy system to clean sources.
A joint study between American and Chinese researchers in 2006 concluded that the majority of city pollution came from various cities and provinces around Beijing. The average 35-60% of ozone can be trace down to its source outside Beijing. The provinces of Shandong and Tianjin have "significant influence on the quality of Beijing's air" partly because the southern/southeast flow has traditionally occurred during summer and the mountains in the north and northwest.
Nearly $17 billion has been spent fulfilling the Chinese government's promise to clear Beijing's air in preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics events. Beijing has implemented a number of air-improvement schemes during the Olympics, including halt jobs at all construction sites, shut down many Beijing factories permanently, pause industry in neighboring areas, closing some petrol stations, odd-even enclosing motor vehicle numbers, reducing bus tariffs and Beijing Subway, opening new subway subways and banning high-emission vehicles. It deployed 3,800 natural gas buses and made it one of the world's largest bus fleets for this species. Beijing was the first city in China to establish its Euros standards.
Coal combustion contributes about 40% of the PM 2.5 in Beijing and is also a major source of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide. Since 2012, the city has converted coal electric generators to natural gas burning aimed at curbing 20 million tons of annual coal consumption. In 2011, the city burned 26.3 million tons of coal, 73% of which were for heating and generating electricity while the rest were for the industry. Most of the city's air pollution comes from neighboring areas. Coal consumption in China near Beijing is expected to increase from 48 to 63 million tons from 2011 to 2015. The province of Hebei burned more than 300 million tons of coal in 2011, which exceeded the burning of coal across Germany that only 30% was used for power plants, the rest for steel and concrete construction. Coal consumption has tripled since 2000 for power plants in coal mining areas in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi, while Shandong also contributed to the problem of air pollution in Beijing. Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei and Inner Mongolia, respectively ranked 1 to 4th as China's largest coal province. There are four major coal power plants in Beijing to provide electricity and heat during the winter, the first was (Gaojing Hot Electric Station) but closed in 2014, the other two were shut down in March 2015 and the last (Huaneng Heat Power Station) was closed in 2016. Between 2013 and 2017, the city plans to reduce 13 million tons of coal consumption and to limit coal consumption to 15 million tons in 2015.
Governments sometimes use cloud hide techniques to increase the chance of raindrops in the region to clear air before a major event, such as before the commemoration parade of 60 years the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 2009 at the same time to cope with drought conditions. Recently, the government also has taken such a policy that it closes while manufacturers and imposed greater restrictions on mobile use of cars, such as the "Blue APEC" phenomenon before and during the 2014’s APEC and what was called a "blue parade" during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. But after the events, the air conditions in Beijing resumed to be as unhealthy as ever.
The quality of air in Beijing is often poor, especially in winter. In mid-January 2013, the air quality of Beijing was measured from the United States Embassy's building in Beijing in PM2.5 out of 75 micrograms per cubic meter, its results showed 75 times higher than the safe figures set by WHO and well beyond the air quality index of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Widely reported, originally via Twitter account under "very bad" category, but later changed to "off index".
On December 8 and 9, 2015, Beijing used the first smoke haze warning system that led to the closure of most other industrial and commercial businesses in the city. After that, another month was issued the status of the "red alert" of smog.
According to the announcement of the Beijing environmental protection bureau in November 2016, beginning 2017 old highly polluted cars will be made to operate on the streets if "red warning" smoke haze is expelled in neighboring cities or regions.
Over the past few years, measurable pollution reduction after the "battle against pollution" announced in 2014, the result has been a reduction of 35% of the subtle particulates in 2017.
Due to the high level of air pollution in Beijing, there are various interpretations of various sources about the problem. Daily pollution interpretation of 27 monitoring stations around the city was reported and displayed on the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BPLB) website. The United States Embassy in Beijing also reports the fine particle rate (PM2.5) an hour and ozone in Twitter. BPLB and KBAS measure different pollutants based on different criteria, so the level of pollution and impact on human health reported by BPLB is often lower than reported by the BAS.
Smoke causes damage and danger to the population. The air pollution in Beijing directly impacts significantly the mobility of cardiovascular disease, respiratory, even exposure to the massive concentration of polluted air could cause death.
The dust from the desert erosion in north and northwest China produces seasonal dust storms which feed the city. Beijing's Weather Modification Agency sometimes use artificial rain to fight such dust typhoon as well as reduce its bad impact. In the first four months of 2006, there have been at least eight dust storms. In April 2002, in one dust storm alone scattered nearly 50,000 tons of dust to the city before moving to Japan and Korea.
Beijing's government is governed by the local Communist Party of China (CCP) led by the Beijing PKT Secretary (Hanzi: 北京市委书记. The local PKT issued administrative instructions, collect tax, manage the economy and directs the Standing Committee of the People's Congress to make policy decisions and supervise local governments.
Government officials including mayors (Hanzi: 市长 and deputy mayor. Many government offices or bureaus are focused on law, public security and other affairs. As China's capital, Beijing holds all important national government and political institutions, including the National People's Congress.
Beijing's municipality now comprises 16 county subdivisions including 16 urban, suburbs and rural districts. On July 1, 2010, Chongwen was joined by Dongcheng District while Xuanwu was joined by Xicheng District. On November 13, 2015, Miyun and Yanqing were upgraded to be district.
|Subdivisions of Beijing|
One. Dongcheng District
Two. Xicheng District
|Division code||Division||Area in km2||2010 population total||Population |
|Subdistrict||Municipality||Township artists ||Housing community||Countryside|
|110000||Beijing||16,406.16||19.612.368||16.858.692||Dongcheng / Tongzhou||10000||149 deaths||143||38||2,538||3,857|
|110101||Dongcheng District||41.82||919,253||Jingshan Subdistrict||10000||17||216|
|110102||Xicheng District||50.33||1.243.315||Jinrong Street Subdistrict||10000||15||259 deaths|
|110105||Chaoyang||454.78||3.545.137||3.532.257||Chaowai Subdistrict||10000||24||19||358||AD 5|
|110106||Fengtai District||305.53||2.112.162||2.098.632||Fengtai Subdistrict||10000||16||2||3U||254||73|
|110107||Shijingshan||84.38||616,083||Lugu Subdistrict||10000||AD 9||130 deaths|
|110108||Haidian District||430.77||3.280.670||3.208.563||Haidian Subdistrict||10000||22||AD 7||603||84|
|110109||Mentougou District||1,447.85||290,476||248,547||Dayu Subdistrict||102300||4||AD 9||124||179 deaths|
|11011||Fangshan District||1994.73||944,832||635,282||Gongchen Subdistrict||102400||AD 8||14||AD 6||108 births||462|
|110112||Tongzhou District||905.79||1.184.256||724,228||Beiyuan subdistrict||101100||AD 6||10||3U||40||480|
|11013||Silence||1,019.51||876,620||471,459||Shengli Subdistrict||101300||AD 6||19||61||449|
|11014||Changping||1342.47||1.660.501||1.310.617||Chengbei Subdistrict||102200||AD 8||14||180 deaths||303|
|110.115||Daxing||1,036.34||1.365.112||965,683||Xingfeng Subdistrict||102600||AD 5||14||64||547|
|11016||Huairou District||2,122.82||372,887||253,088||Longshan Subdistrict||101400||2||12||2||27||286|
|110.118||Miyun District||2,225.92||467,680||257,449||Gulou Subdistrict||101500||2||17||3U||57||338|
|110.119||Yanqing District||1,994.89||317,426||154,386||Rulin Subdistrict||102100||3U||11||4||34||376|
|Division in Han and Pinyin|
|Beijing Municipality||北京市||Bijing ě Shì|
|Dongcheng District||东城区||Dōngchéng Qū|
|Xicheng District||西城区||Xīchéng Qū|
|Chaoyang District||朝阳区||Cháoyáng Qū|
|Fengtai District||丰台区||Fēia Qū|
|Shijingshan District||石景山区||Japanese ǐ|
|Haidian District||海淀区||HAlexander Qū|
|Mentougou District||门头沟区||Mystaugōu Qū|
|Fangshan District||房山区||Fángshān Qū|
|Tongzhou District||通州区||Kongōu zh Qū|
|Shunyi District||顺义区||Shùnyì Qū|
|Changping District||昌平区||Japanese cuisine|
|Daxing District||大兴区||Dai and Qū|
|Huairou District||怀柔区||Huáiróu Qū|
|PWeek District||平谷区||ngg Qū|
|Miyun District||密云区||Miyún Qū|
|Yanqing District||延庆区||Yánqiang Qū|
- ^ It includes ethnic municipal administration regions and other municipalities administration regions linked to the subdivision.
The 16 county-level divisions in Beijing redivided into 273 lower third-level administrative units: 119 municipalities, 24 municipalities of municipality, 5 ethnic municipalities and 125 subdistricts. Municipalities of Beijing but outside the urban area are (but the lines are not very strict):
- Changping 昌平
- Huairou 怀柔
- Miyun 密云
- Liangxiang 良乡
- Liulimiao 琉璃庙
- Tongzhou 通州
- Yizhuang 亦庄
- Tiantongyuan 天通苑
- Beiyuan 北苑
- Xia oangshan 小汤山
The main part of Beijing, including the city gate (in a simple Han alphabet ending "门" means "gateway" in the Beijing city wall) most of which are no longer available, among others:
- Qianmen 前门
- Tian'anmen 天安门
- Di'anmen 地安门
- Chongwenmen 崇文门
- Xuanwumen 宣武门
- Fuchengmen 阜成门
- Xizhimen 西直门
- Deshengmen 德胜门
- Andingmen 安定门
- Sanctuary 三里屯
- Dongzhimen 东直门
- Chaoyang 朝阳门
- Yongdingmen 永定门
- Zuo'anmen 左安门
- You'anmen 右安门
- Guang qumen 广渠门
- Guang 广安门
- Dongbianmen 东便门
- Xibianmen 西便门
- Hepingmen 和平门
- Fuxingmen 复兴门
- Jianguomen 建国门
- Gongzhufen 公主坟
- Fangzh 方庄
- Guomao 国贸
- Hepingli 和平里
- Beixinqiao 北新桥街道
- Jiaodaokou 交道口街道
- Wangjing 望京街道
- Wangfujing 王府井
- Wudaokou 五道口
- Xidan 西单
- Dongdan 东单
- Zhongguancun 中关村
- CBD Beijing 北京商务中心区
- Yayuncun 亚运村
The Beijing justice system comprises the People's Supreme Court (which is China's highest court), the Beijing People's Court of City (Local People's Court), 3 Intermediate People's Courts, 14 People's Elementary Courts (in Beijing's City), 1 The intermediate Court of Railways and 1 Basic Court of Transportation.
The middleman Court No. 1 Beijing in Shijingshan watched the people's general courts in Haidian, Shijingshan, Mentougou, Changping and Yanqing. The middleman Court No. Two in Fengtai escorted the people's primary trial in Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Fangshan and Daxing. The middleman Court No. 3 Beijing in Laiguangying is the latest in three mid-level tribunals opened on August 21, 2013, monitoring the elemental courts of the people in the Chaoyang district of Tongzhou, Shunyi, Huairou, Sunday and Miyun. Every court in Beijing has a people's prosecutor who will meet its level.
171 countries opened their embassy in Beijing concentrated in Jianguomenwai, Sanlitun and Liangmaqiao, in Chaoyang District.
Beijing was the headquarters of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, making it an important city for international diplomacy.
By 2018, Beijing's Nominal GDP was US$ 458 billion (about CN3 trillion) or about 3.45 percent of China's GDP or roughly 12 provincial administration units, U.S. $21.261 per capita GDP (CN 140.748) and ranked 1 in China.
China's state-owned companies were concentrated in the Beijing national capital in 2013 which had more headquarters in its Fortune Global 500 list than any other city in the world. Beijing is also called the "global capital billionaire".
|Beijing GDP history of 1978 - now (SNA2008)|
(KKB cards in Yuan China converted into international dollars based on WEO IMF, October 2017)
|Year||GDP||GDP per capita (GDPpk) |
by population mid-year
|GDP in million||Growth |
1 foreign currency
|USD 1||Int'l$. 3U|
Economic sector composition
The city possesses a post-industrial economy dominated by the tertiary sector (services) that produces 76.9% of the output followed by the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction) at 22.2% and primary sector (agriculture, mining) at 0.8%.
The broadly diversified services sector in professional services, information technology, commercial land, scientific research, housing, wholesale and retail services which constituted at least 6% of the city's economy in 2013.
The biggest single-sector subsector is still in the industrial sector, although most of its outputs have declined to 18.1% in 2013. The mixture of industrial products has changed significantly since 2010 when the city announced that 140 highly polluting the environment, energy and water resources will be removed from the city in the next five years. Relokasi Capital Steel to the neighboring Hebei province has been started since 2005. In 2013, automobile outputs, space products, semiconductors, medicine and food processing, all up.
Agricultural fields around Beijing, vegetables and fruits have replaced the seeds as the main crop that are now growing. In 2013, the tonnage of vegetables, Edible fungi and the fruits that are harvested more than three times more than wheat. The whole area which is planted is shrinking alongside the majority of the product category because more land is replanted for environmental reasons.
In 2006, the city government identified six high-end economic outputs zones around Beijing as the main engine for local economic growth. In 2012, six economic zones contributed 43.3% of the city's GDP, up 36.5% from 2007. The six economic zones are:
- Zhongguancun, China's silicon village in the northwestern District of Haidian, is home to established and newly established technology companies. In the second quarter of 2014, from the 9,895 companies listed in one of the six economic zones, totaling 6,150 based in Zhongguancun.
- Beijing's Financial Road, in the Xicheng District of Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen, is surrounded by national bank headquarters and insurance companies. The state financial regulatory institution including central bank, regulator bank, securities commission and foreign exchange exchange authority are in the region.
- Beijing's CBD, actually located in the east of the city, near the embassy area along the 3rd Ring Road between Outer Jianguomen Road and Outer Chaoyang Street. It has become home to many high-rise office buildings. Most foreign companies and professional services firms of the city are based in the Beijing CBD region.
- Beijing's Economic and Technology Development Region, often called Yizhuang, is an industrial park that runs on the 5th Rim of the Daxing District. It is home to many pharmaceutical companies, information technology and material/material techniques.
- Beijing Airport's Economic Zone launched in 1993 and around Beijing's Capital International Airport in the Northeastern District of Shunyi-Sumedang-Barangay. Aside from logistics, aviation service and trading companies, the area also has been a Beijing automobile manufacturing plant.
- The Beijing Olympic Center zone surrounds the northern city's green zone and continues to grow into a center for entertainment, sports, travel pari and business conventions.
The Shijingshan district in the western suburbs is a traditional heavy industrial base for steel manufacturing. The chemical plant is concentrated on the eastern edge of the area.
|The population size can be affected by changes in the administration division.|
In 2018, Beijing had a total population of more than 21 million people and was 18.251 million living in rural districts or cities and 2.897 million live in rural areas. The surrounding metropolitan areas that include estimated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development have a population of more than 25 million people.
Beijing ranks second only on the urban population having squandered by urban slums after Shanghai and is third, according to the number of municipalities after Shanghai and Chongqing. Beijing also ranks among the world's most densely populated cities, the city's reputation for the last 800 years, especially during the 15th century and early 19th century when Beijing was one of the largest cities in the world.
About 13 million city residents in 2013 had Punou as permanent residents in Beijing, while the rest had legal clearance elsewhere and did not meet the requirements for the facilities and social benefits provided by the Beijing city government.
Population was increasing in 2013 by 7% compared to the previous year and continued to trend in rapid growth for a decade. The population of the population of 14.213 million was 2004. Population growth is mostly caused by migration. population natural growth in 2013 was only 0.41%, on the difference of birth rates 8.93 and 4.52 deaths. The ratio of gender balance in Beijing is 51.6% of men and 48.4% women.
The workforce is nearly 80% of the population. Compared to 2004, residents aged 0-14 fell from 9.96% to 9.5% in 2013 and those aged above 65 declined from 11.12% to 9.2%. From 2000 to 2010, the proportion of urban people with college or equivalent reached almost double 16.8% to 31.5%. About 22.2% have high school education and 31% junior high school.
According to the 2010 census, nearly 96 percent of Beijing's population is Han Chinese. Five are the largest minority in the capital of approximately 800,000 people, including Manchu (336,000), Hui (249,000), Korea (77,000), Mongol (37,000) and Tujia (24,000). Additionally, there are about 8,045 Hong Kong residents, 500 Macau residents, 7,772 Taiwan residents and 91,128 foreigners registered in Beijing. A study carried out by the Beijing Academy of Sciences estimated that in 2010 there were an average of 200,000 foreigners living in Beijing on certain days including students, business travelers and tourists, excluding as registered citizens.
In 2017, the Chinese government started applying population controls for the city of Beijing and Shanghai to counter the so-called "urban disease" such as jam, pollution, shortages of education and health care services. Impact on this policy, Beijing's population has declined 20,000 from 2016 to 2017. Residents living in low-income neighborhoods were demolished and forced to flee from capitals, both legal and illegal. The population is distributed to Jing-Jin-Ji region and the Xiong'an New Region, an estimated 300,000-500,000 people are spread out in the region to work in government research departments, universities and headquarters of various companies.
The indigenous peoples of the Beijing city spoke in a Beijing dialect that included subdivisions from the spoken Mandarin Chinese. The dialect is putonghua based on the standard spoken language in mainland China and Taiwan, also becoming one of the four official languages in Singapore. Rural regions in Beijing have their own dialect similar to those used in Hebei province.
Peking Opera is one of the most famous traditional Chinese theater types in the world. Generally praised as one of the greatest achievements of Chinese culture, Peking opera was staged by combinations of songs, oral dialog and various actions such as motion, battle and acrobat. Most of Peking opera house uses an ancient stage dialect very different from its standard Mandarin or modern Beijing dialect.
Beijing's food is Beijing's trademark and cooking style. Peking duck could be the most famous dish. Fuling jiabing, the traditional Beijing snack food of pancakes (bing) resembles a flat disk with fu ling's stuffing, fungi often used in traditional Chinese medicine. These are common tea houses in Beijing and are found ubiquitous.
Cloisonné or Chinese is called a simple Hanzi: 景泰蓝; Traditional Chinese: 景泰藍; Pinyin: jǐ ngtàilán, literally "Blue Jingtai") is a technique and tradition of metal caching that is characterized by Beijing's art and is one of the most respected traditional crafts in China. cloisoné's creation requires a complicated and detailed process of being blocked with mallets, copper masks, filtering, email filling, email combustion, surface regulation and fertilization. Beijing's varnish goods are known for its complicated and detailed pattern and images carved at the creek kaannya and use various vernis decorated techniques including "chisel varnish crow" and "engraving gold."
Beijing's young people were more interested in the fast-growing night lives of the past few decades, in violating previous cultural traditions that were meant to be enjoyed only by upper-class citizens. At the moment, Houhai, Sanlitun and Wudaokou are the favorite night entertainment center in Beijing.
In 2012, Beijing was crowned Design Cities and was part of UNESCO’s Creative City Network.
...the city remains a tradition center with the nearly 2,000-year-old khazanah as the imperial city's capital still seen in the popular Forbidden City and also in fertile pavilions and fertile urban parks...— National Geographic
The Forbidden City is located in the heart of Beijing's historic, a large palace complex that was once the home of the emperor of the Ming and Qing Dynasty. The Palace Museum, which contains the collection of imperial Chinese art empire, is within the Forbidden City that also has several beautiful imperial parks such as Beihai Park, Shichahai, Zhongnanhai, Jingshan and Zhongshan. These parks, particularly the Beihai Park, are regarded as masterpieces of Chinese Garden and have been an important historical tourist destination. Zhongnanhai has also become the heart of the Chinese government and regime's politics as well as the headquarters of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. From Tianmen Square in the opposite city, there are some famous sites such as Tianmen, Qianmen, Great Hall of the People, China's National Museum, People's Hero Monument and Mausoleum Mao Zedong. The collapse of the Old Summer Palace and Summer Palace of World Heritage Site is in western Beijing containing the full collection of imperial parks and palaces that serve as the resting place for the Qing imperial family.
Among the most famous religious sites in Beijing are the Kuil Langit, which is also the UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the southeastern part of the city, the shrine where emperors from the Ming Dynasty and Qing held annual prayers to celebrate the abundant harvest. In the northern part of the city lies Kuil the Earth (Ditan), whereas the Kuil Sun (Ritan) and the Kuil Moon (Yuetan) are located in eastern and western urban areas. Other famous shrine sites include DongyueKuil, Kuil he, Kuil Miaoying, Kuil the White Cloud, Kuil Yonghe, Kuil Fayuan, the of Wanshou, the Great Bell, the Confucius Vacals and Guozijian Vacres, or called the Imperial Academy, which in the past was used as a Confucius-based empire education tool. The Immaculate Conception Cathedral was built in 1605, the oldest Catholic church in Beijing and Niujie Mosque in its history which stretch more than a thousand years into the oldest Mosque in Beijing.
Beijing also has many, many pagoda including the well-guarded stone pagoda, like the high-rise Kuil Tianning Pagoda, built in the ancient Liao Dynasty era from 1100 to 120 and Pagoda Kuil Cishou from the Ming Dynasty era, was built in 1576. Some historic rock bridges such as the 12th-century Lugou Bridge, the Eight Li Bridge (Baliqiao) of the 17th century and the 18th-century Giok Bridge. The ancient Beijing Observatory featured a particle matter derived from the Ming and Qing Dynasty. The Xiangshan Park is a public park that has a natural landscape as well as traditional and cultural heritage. The Beijing Botanical Garden has a collection of more than 6,000 species of plants, as well as large variety of trees, sweet plants, flowers and large parks. Taoranting, Longtan, Chaoyang, Haidian, Milu and Zizhu Yuan are among the popular public recreation parks in Beijing. The Beijing Zoo becomes a zoology research center and has a rare collection of animals from many continents including a giant panda.
Beijing has 144 museums registered per 2008, besides the Palaces in its Forbidden City and China National Museum, another big museum is China's National Art Museum, the Capital Museum, Beijing Art Museum, the Chinese People's Revolutionary Museum, the China Geological Museum, the Beijing Museum of Natural History and the Chinese Paleozoology.
The thirteen Ming Dynasty Tombs are located on the outskirts of the city but they are still part of Beijing's municipality, are luxurious and detailed funeral sites of the thirteen Ming Dynasty emperors established as the Ming Dynasty Tomb and Qing World Heritage Sites and Peking Human Rights sites in Zhoukoudian that are also part of the World Heritage Site, which has many archeological findings among the first specimens of Homeco and Homeco specimens a huge pool of Pachycrocuta brevirostris giant bone. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Great Wall portion, which lies in the city, is Badaling, Jinshanling, Simatai and Mutianyu.
Beijing rich heritage of various religions, such as China's traditional beliefs, Tao, Buddha, Conghucu, Islam and Christianity, all of which have a significant history in the city. As the capital of the national city, Beijing is the central office of the State of Religious Affairs and various leading religious institutions sponsored by the country. In the past few decades, foreigners have brought other religions to Beijing. According to Wang Zhiyun of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2010, there are 2.2 million Buddhists in this city or equal to 11.2% of the total population. According to China's 2009 General Social Survey, Christians are 0.78 percent of the city's population and according to a 2010 survey, 1.76 percent of the Beijing population.
Chinese and Taoist traditional beliefs
Beijing has many shrines dedicated to religious and traditional belief gods, many of whom were being rebuilt or updated in the 2000s and 2010s. Annual offering to Tian (祭天; The Langit was followed by Confucius in the 2010s.
Some shrines are dedicated to the cult of the Goddess (娘娘; Niángniáng), one of which is near the Olympic Homestead, and they hold rituals memut from the main fertilization center in Mount Miaofeng. In addition, there is also a shrine consecrated for the Dragon God, the King of Medicine (药王; Yàowáng), Guan Yu (Kwan Kong), Fire Lord (火神; Huǒ shén), the richness gods, the shrines of Chenghuangshen and at least one shrine that has been purified by the Yellow Emperor's hawk-star jaguar temple (轩辕黄帝; Xuānyuán Huángdì in the Sunday District, which is planned to expand in 2020 and build a statue of the god that will be one of the highest statues in the world. Many temples operated by the Beijing Tao Association, such as the Kuil Fire Lord Shicha Lake, but other shrines were run by popular local committees.
China's Tao Association (national) and China's Taoism High School berk the Central Kuil of White Cloud Office Tao Quanzh en, established at 741 and has been rebuilt several times. Kuil Dongyue outside Chaoyang is the largest temple of Tao Zhengyi in Beijing. The Beijing Tao Association is berk the headquarters in Luzu Kuil near Fuxingmen.
East Asian Buddhism
11 percent of the Beijing population ranks by East Asian Buddhism. The Chinese Buddhist Association, a state watchdog that oversees all Buddhist institutions in mainland China, berk the central office in Kuil ji, a shrine established more than 800 years ago in the Jin Dynasty, is now in an area called Fuchengmen in 阜成门内. Beijing's Buddhist Association joins the Buddhist Orchestra and Kuil Buddhist Orchestra at Guang hua which originated Yuan dynasty more than 700 years ago, while pustak at Fayuan Kuil near Caishikou. Kuil Fayuan, a native of the Tang Dynasty 1300 years ago, became the oldest temple in Beijing. Kuil Tongjiao in Dongzhimen region is the only temple in Beijing's biksuni
Xihuang Kuil originally from the Liao Dynasty. In 1651, the shrine was rebuilt on Emperor Shunzhi's order from the Qing Dynasty to house Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the 5th Dalai Lama during his visit to Beijing. Since then the shrine hosted the 13th Dalai Lama and the 6th, 9th and 10th Panchen Lama. The Emperor Qianlong set Kuil Yonghe as the Beijing's largest Tibetan Kuil Buddhist in 1744 and was the site of a research and place for the Tibetan Buddhist counselor Rölpé Dorjé with the third Changkya. Yonghe Kuil was taken from the name of Emperor Yongzh eng because the shrine was his childhood home and when he became emperor, he replaced the roof Kuil Yonghe with a glacial roof which is usually reserved for building roofs in the imperial palace.
Lingguang Kuil in Badachu, Western hills, came from the days of Tang Dynasty. The Pagoda, in the shrine of Zhaoxian (招仙塔), was first built in 1071 during the Liao Dynasty to reserve the Buddhist dental relics. The Pagoda was destroyed during the Boxer Rebellion and the tooth was found in the foundations of a pagoda, and then a new pagoda was built in 1964. Six shrines are: Guang ji, Guang hua, Tongjiao, Xihuang, Yonghe and Lingguang have been named Kuil the Han Chinese National Buddha.
In addition, other renowned temples in Beijing include Kuil he (the oldest temple in Beijing founded during the Jin Dynasty), Kuil Tianning (owning the oldest pagoda in Beijing), Kuil Miaoying (famous as a product of the Yuan Dynasty considered to be the white pagoda), Kuil Wanshou (and as Beijing Art Museum) and Kuil Big Bell (Davies).
Beijing has about 70 mosques recognized by the China Islamic Association berk its headquarters next to Niujie Mosque which is the oldest mosques in Beijing. Niujie Mosque was established in 996 during the Liao dynasty and was frequently visited by Muslim officials.
The biggest Mosque in Beijing is the ChangYing Mosque, which lies in the Chaoyang District, which spans 8,400 sq. m.
Other well-known mosques in the old city include Dongsi Mosque established in 1346, Huashi Mosque was built in 1415, Nan Douya Mosque near Chaoyang, the Jinshifang Road Mosque in Xicheng District and Dongzhimen Mosque. In addition, there are also large mosques in remote Muslim communities such as Haidian, Madian, Tongzhou, Changping, Changying, Shijingshan and Miyun. China's Islamic Institute sits in Niujie's neighborhood in Xicheng District.
In 1289, John of Monte Corvino came to Beijing as a Fransistic missionary at the order of the Pope. After meeting and receiving support from Kublai Khan in 1293, he built the first Catholic church in Beijing in 1305. The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (AKPT) based in Houhai is a government watchdog body for Catholics in mainland China. The prominent Catholic Church in Beijing includes:
- The Church of Nallada or the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Beijing commonly called the Xuanwumen, was founded in 1605 and its current bishop is Joseph Li Shan, one of few bishops in China who received support from the Vatican and AKPT.
- Saint Yosef's more famous Dongtang or Church of Saint Yosef called the Wangfujing Church, was founded in 1653.
- Beitang or Church of Savior, commonly called the Xishiku Church, was founded in 1703.
- Xitang or the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is also known as the Church of Xizhimen, founded in 1723.
The National Seminary of the Catholic Church in China is in the Daxing District.
The earliest Protestant Church in Beijing was founded by British and American missionaries in the second half of the 19th century. The Protestant missionary also opens schools, universities and hospitals that have become important civil institutions. Most of the Beijing Protestant Church was destroyed during the Boxer Uprising, but it was rebuilt. In 1958, 64 Protestant churches in Beijing were reorganized into four churches and watched by the nation through the Triple Patriotic Movement.
There are a large number of Orthodox Christians in Beijing. Orthodox came to Beijing along with Russian prisoners as a result of the 17th century Albazino conflict. Viktor, a Beijing bishop in 1956, returned to the Soviet Union, so old Beijing cathedral was taken over by the Soviet embassy and subsequently destroyed. In 2007, the Russian embassy created a new church at the embassy park to serve the Russian Orthodox Christians in Beijing.
Television and radio
Beijing's television set up 1 to 10 channels from the China Central Television Center, China's largest television network and its central berk office in Beijing. Three radio stations broadcast a program in English: FM hit the F88.7, China's International Easy FM on the FM 91.5 waves and Radio 774 launched on the AM 774 waves. Beijing's People's Broadcasting Station is a radio station group operating in Beijing.
Beijing's Big News (Hanzi) newspaper: 北京晚报; Pinyin: Bijing ě WAlexander) covered news about Beijing in the Mandarin published each afternoon. Other newspapers published in Beijing include the following:
- People's Daily (Simplified Chinese: 人民日报; Traditional Chinese: 人民日報; Pinyin: Rénín Rìbào).
- Beijing Daily (Hanzi: 北京日报; Pinyin: Bijilan ě rì bào.
- New Beijing News (Hanzi: 新京报; Pinyin: Xīn jīng bào).
- Beijing Entertainment News (Hanzi: 北京娱乐信报; Pinyin: Bijīng ě yúlé xìn bào) in Beijing Star Daily English.
- Beijing Morning News.
- Beijing Youth Daily (Hanzi: 北京青年报; Pinyin: Bif ě qīng nián bào).
Global Times English-language daily tabloid (Simplified Chinese): 环球时报; Traditional Chinese: 環球時報; Pinyin: Huánqiú Shíbào) and China Daily newspapers (Hanzi: 中国日报; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Rìbào), in addition to the English-language week newspaper Beijing Weekend and Beijing Today (Hanzi: 今日北京; Pinyin: Jīn rì byan ě).
Some English-language magazine for egara visitors and expatriate communities such as Time Out Beijing, City Weekend, Beijing ThisMonth, RunBeijing Talk,That's Beijing and The Beijing Beijinger.
Beijing has hosted many international and national sporting events, most famously in the 2008 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics. Other international sporting events such as the 2001 Universiade and the 1990 Asian Games. International sports competitions include the Beijing Marathon (every year since 1981), the China Open Tennis Championships (1993-97, every year since 2004), the Chinese Cup's Beautiful Growth Grand Prix (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2 and 2010), China Open Snooker WPBSA (every year since 2005), Sepe Union and the International Tour of Beijing (since 2011), 1961 World Table Tennis Championships, 1987 AFC World Cup and 2004 Asian Barclays Cup . Beijing is hosting the 2015 Athletic World Championships.
Wukesong Stadium has become one of the biggest spots for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.
The city hosted China's 21914th National Sports Week and was the first to host four consecutive Chinese National Sports Weeks in 1959, 1965, 1975 and 1979. Beijing also hosted the 1993 National Olympics with Sichuan and Qingdao. Beijing hosts China's National Peasants Games in 1988 and the 69th National Minority Games in 1999.
In November 2013, Beijing decided to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. On July 31, 2015, the International Olympic Committee ruled Beijing as the hosts of the 2022 Winter Olympics and became the first city to host two Olympic sports in both the Summer Olympics and the 2022 Winter Olympics.
Beijing's main sports venues include the "Bird Nest" National Stadium, the National Aquatics Center dubbed the "Kubus Air", the National Indoor Stadium, are all located in the northern Olympic green zones of the city, the Wukesong Stadium in the western region of the city center, the Indoor Stadium and Buruh Stadium in the eastern Sanlitun neighborhood and the Capital Indoor Stadium in Baishiqiao. In addition, many universities in this city own facilities including their own sports stadium.
A professional sports team based in Beijing:
- Chinese Baseball League
- Beijing Tigers
- Chinese Basketball Association
- Beijing Ducks
- Royal ghters Beijing
- Chinese Women's Basketball Association
- Beijing Shougang District
- Continental Hockey League
- HC Kunlun Red Star
- Chinese Super League
- Beijing Sinobo
- Renhe Beijing
- Chinese First League
- China Second League
- China Women's Super League
- Beijing BG
Beijing Olympians of the American Basketball Association previously were the China Basketball Association teams, remained on their names and kept a list of Chinese players particularly after moving to Maywood, California in 2005.
The China Bandy Federation is based in Beijing, one of China's several cities that are developing and exploring bandy sports.
Beijing has become a major transit point in North China with six Rim Roads, 1,167-km controlled highway, 15 National Highway, nine conventional railway lines and five high-speed train berk lines converge in the city.
High-speed berk railway
Beijing as a major junction of the Chinese rail network. Ten conventional railways were scattered from the city on route: Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu Line), Beijing-Guang zhou (Jingguang Line), Beijing-Kowloon (Jingjiu Line), Beijing-Harbin (Jingha Line), Beijing-Qinhuangdao (Jingqin Line), Beijing-Baotou (Jingbao Line), Beijing-Chengde (Jingcheng Line), Beijing-Tongliao-Jingao District (In tong), Beijing-Yuanping, Shanxi (Jingyuan Line) and Beijing-Shacheng, Hebei (Fengsha Line). Moreover, the Datong-Qinhuangdao train also traversed the northern regions of Beijing.
Beijing also has 5 high-speed train berk lines on route: Beijing-Tianjin opened in 2008, Beijing-Shanghai (2011), Beijing-Guang zhou (2012), Beijing-Xiong'an (2019) and Beijing-Zhangjiakou (2019).
The city's main railway station was a Beijing-open railway station in 1959, followed by the West Beijing Train Station opened in 1996 and the South Beijing railway station rebuilt into a high-speed train station in 2008. North Beijing Train Station, built in 1905 and expanded in 2009, the Qinghe railway station was built in 1905 and renovated in 2019, Fengtai Train Station, Chaoyang railway station and Beijing Subcentral railway station. A total of 173 trains arrived each day at the Beijing railway station, 232 in West Beijing, 163 in South Beijing and 22 trains in the North Station.
Smaller stations such as East Beijing Train Station and Daxing Airport Station serve passenger commuter traffic. In the suburbs and counties of Beijing, there are more than 40 train stations.
From Beijing, passenger train service is available with goals to large cities in China. International train services are also available with goals in Mongolia, Russia, Vietnam and North Korea. The Chinese passenger train was numbered according to their Beijing-related goal.
Beijing is linked to all parts of China as part of the National Highway Network. Many of China's controlled freeways link Beijing as well as China's 15 National Highway. Beijing's urban transportation relies on a "circular walk" that concentric surround the city and the Forbidden City to become the geographical center for a circular road. From the top, or the edges of Beijing's circular form are not exactly ring-shaped, or ring. Officially, there is no "Circle 1", the 2nd Ring road becomes the first overhead ring in the inner city. Circular roads tend to resemble progressively controlled freeways when expanded. The 5th and 6th circles become the national freeway connected to other roads in a number of intersections. Controlled-access highways that travel to other regions in China generally are accessible by the 3rd Ring Road. The last outer ring, the Capital Territorial Ring Road G95, was opened in 2018 and will be extended to Tianjin and Hebei.
The streets in the urban core of Beijing generally follow the pattern of the heritage boxes of the ancient capital. Many highways and priests in Beijing are still named after the words "in" or "outer" for being named after a former "inside" or "outside" the walls of Beijing and use the word "mén" (门/門, the gateway), even though now most of those gates are no longer available.
Traffic jam is the main problem even outside of rush hours some traffic jam is still stuck. The design layout of Beijing cities is making matters worse with transportation. Authorities have introduced several bus routes that can only be used by public buses during rush hours. By the beginning of 2010, Beijing had 4 million registered cars. By the end of 2010, the government estimated 5 million units. In 2010, new car registration in Beijing averaged 15,500 units a week.
By the end of 2010, the city government announced a series of drastic measures to overcome traffic jams, including limiting the number of new license plates to the passenger car to 20,000 a month and barring cars with non-Beijing plates into the 5th ring of busy day. Stricter regulation is also imposed if there are large or weather events in very polluted condition.
Street signs have started to be standardized using Han and English alphabet, location names begin using pinyin since 2008.
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing has the world's two largest international airports. Beijing Capital International Airport (IATA: PEK) the world's second busiest airports by passenger traffic after Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, the United States. About 32 kilometers north-east of Beijing's city center and is in the Chaoyang District, which borders the Shunyi District. The terminal 3 at the airport was built during a renovation of the 2008 Summer Olympics - one of the largest terminals in the world. Also the Capital Airport is the main confinement of Chinese airline and Hainan Airlines. The highway is controlled by the airport and the second toll road motorcycles are connected to the capital Airport from the east and the northeastern direction of the city. Travel time from city center to airport was about 40 minutes under normal traffic. Airport Express, Beijing Subway and the Beijing Capital Airport Bus are also serving Capital Airport.
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport (IATA :PKX) opened on September 25, 2019. It is 46 kilometers south of downtown Beijing, in the Daxing District, which borders Langfang city, Hebei Province. Daxing airport has one of the world's largest terminal buildings and is expected to serve Beijing, Tianjin and northern Hebei Province. Daxing airport connects to the city center through the Beijing-Xiong'an intercity train, Beijing Daxing Airport Metro Line and two controlled roadways.
With Daxing Airport opening, Beijing Nanyuan Airport (IATA) The NAY), located 13 kilometers south of the city of Beijing, in the Fengtai District, has been shut down for the civilian airline service. Other airports in the city of Liangxiang, Xijiao, Shahe and Badaling are used for military purposes.
Visa requirements for airmen
Starting January 1, 2013, there was a visa free 72 hours in Beijing for tourists from the 45 countries including Singapore, Japan, the United States, Canada, all European countries (except Norway and Liechtenstein), all Emirati, Switzerland, Brazil, Argentina and Australia. The program benefits both transit and business visitors, 72 hours were counted from the time visitors received their transit clearance not from the time of their aircraft arriving. The foreign visitors were not allowed to leave Beijing to other Chinese cities for 72 hours.
Beijing Subway started operating in 1969, now has 23 lanes with 404 69.3 kilometers of stations and 699.3 kilometers of the world's longest underground train line and transports the most annual passenger 3.66 billion in 2016. The average rate charged is 2.00 yen (approximately Rp.4,200/exchange rate of July 2020) per trip with unlimited transfers at all stations except Airport Express, the subway also serves as the highest-ever city rail transportation. Plans will continue to be developed and reaching 30 lanes, 450 stations and railways covering 1,050 kilometers by 2022. If it is fully completed, 95 percent of the population in the 4th Ring road can walk to stations for at least 15 minutes. Beijing's suburban train supplies commuter train service to remote suburbs.
On December 28, 2014, Beijing Subway moved to a distance based rates system no longer using fixed rates for all paths except Airport Express. With this new system it will cost around 3.00 yen (Rp.6,300 per July 2020 yen) fees, 6 kilometers following will be charged 1,000 (around Rp.2,100/July 2020 for each 10 km later are charged 1.000 per trip. For example, a total trip is 50 km, then the total cost was 8,000 yen (approximately Rp16,800/exchange rate of July 2020)
Nearly 1,000 units of Beijing Bus and electric buses operated in Beijing, including four Bus Rapid Transit. Standard 1.00 yen bus rates use Yikatong metrocard.
A taxi meter in Beijing started from 13 yen for the first 3 kilometers, 2.3 yen per kilometer in advance and an additional 1 p.m. per trip as a fuel fee, excluding additional fees to slip 2.3 ( 4.6 hourly, 7-9 a.m. and 5-7 p.m.) per 5 minutes or a taxi walk at a speed below 12 kilometers per hour. Most of the taxi units used were Hyundai Elantra, Hyundai Sonata, Peugeot, Citroën and Volkswagen Jetta. After 15 km, the base rate rose 50%. Various taxi companies have a special color combination painted on their vehicles. Typically, taxis are registered in yellow chocolate as base color, with Prussian blue, white, purple, gray or sea green. Between 11:00 and 17:00 p.m. also charged an additional 20%. Travel for more than 15 kilometers between 23:00 and 6:00 was charged with an increase of 80% of the normal cost. The travel costs outside the boundaries of Beijing will have to be negotiated with the driver. Unregistered taxi costs are also negotiated with the driver.
Beijing has long been famous for its bikes in its streets. Although the rise in motor vehicle traffic has led to a lot of traffic jams and the use of bikes has declined, there are still important local transportation forms. Many cyclists are available in the majority of the city's roads and most of the main roads have bike lanes. The streets in Beijing are relatively flat so they're convenient for cycling and very likely to ride to most cities. The emergence of electric bikes and electric scooters has led to the revival of a two-wheeled transport. As a result of the rising traffic jam, authorities have indicated they would like to encourage the people to ride their bike, but it's not clear if it would actually be significantly implemented. On March 30, 2019, the custom bike lanes along the 6.5-kilometer board was opened to reduce traffic jams between Huilongguan and Shangdi, a country's high-tech company. The rise in cycling popularity was triggered by the emergence of huge sums of bike leasing apps like Mobike, Bluegogo and Office since 2016.
Defense and aerospace
Command headquarters of the Chinese military forces is based in Beijing. The Central Military Commission, the political arm responsible for the military, is stationed in the Ministry of National Defense located next to the Chinese People's Revolutionary Military Museum in West Beijing. The Second Artillery Force that controls China's strategic missile, its commander-in-chief basis in Qinghe, Haidian District. The headquarters of the Central Military Command, based in western Gaojing, is tasked with supervising the garrison of the Beijing capital and the 27th People's Liberation Army (TPR), 38th and 65th based in Hebei.
The military institutions in Beijing also have academics and think tanks such as the National Defense University and the Academy of TPR Military Sciences, military hospitals 301 and 307, the Academy of Military Medical Sciences and cultural entities affiliated with soldiers like Film Studio August 1 and Ansambel Song and TPR.
China's National Space Administration which monitors national space program and several Chinese state-owned companies related to space such as CASTC and CASIC are all based in Beijing. The Beijing Air Command and Control Center in Haidian District tracks manned and unmanned aircraft and other space exploration.
Nature and wildlife
Beijing has 20 acres of natural gas totaling 1.339.7 km². The mountains in the west and north of the city are home to some protected species of wildlife, including leopard, cat, wolf, red fox, moon orbiter, raccoon dog, raccoon dog, pigs, Siberian brick, Amur pork, deer and mandarin snake. Beijing's Aquatic Wildlife Conservation and Rescue Center protects China's giant salamander, Amur stickleback and mandarin ducks in the Huaijiu and Huaisha in Huairou District. Milu Park in the south of the city is home to one of the largest herds of Père David's deer, now extinct in the wild. Beijing's wide-ears bat is a species of vesper bats found in caves in Fangshan District in 2001 and was identified as different species in 2007, to be Beijing's endemic. Fangshan mountains are also a habitat for Peking lasiwen, a great lasiwen, a large-horse tapal bat and a great foot of Rickett.
Each year, Beijing holds about 200-300 species of bird migration including the Eurasia-tiered, black-headed seagull, swans, asian cooties and endangered yellow blower birds. May 2016, a Eurasian curry lodged in Cuihu (Haidian) wetlands, Hanshiqiao (Shunyi), Yeyahu (Yanqing) has been tagged and tracked flown so far to India, Kenya and Mozambique. In the fall of 2016, Beijing Forest Police launched a one-month campaign to crack down on poaching and entrenching the vendors of birds that migrate to the local bird market. More than 1,000 birds have been rescued from protected species including streptopelia pigeon genus, the Eurasian system, avan crust, coal gelatin and gray coal gelatin that later were delivered to the protection and Rescue of the Beijing Wildlife to be returned to the wild later.
The typical Beijing flowers are Chinese roses and a union. Trees include arborvitae oriental, olime trees of the cupressaceae family and pagoda trees often called as Chinese student trees, including the single plant of the fabaceae family. The oldest pagoda tree in Beijing is now situated in a place called the Beihai Park that was built during the Tang Dynasty.
Beijing has several twin towns across the globe, many of whom are the capital of the country:
| || || |
Beijing has two city partners in Europe
Notes and references
- ^ a b c d Township divisions. ebeijing.gov.cn. Archived from a original version of September 3, 2009. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ Doing Business in China - Survey. Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from a original version of May 26, 2014. It was accessed on August 5, 2013.
- ^ Cox, W. (2018). Demographic World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). Saint St. Louis: Demographic. lm. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) version on May 3, 2018. Accessed June 15, 2018.
- ^ "Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics and the NBS Survey Office in Beijing" (in English). Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. January 23, 2019. Archived from the original version of January 23, 2019. Accessed by January 24, 2019.
- ^ Cox, W. (2018). Demographic World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). Saint St. Louis: Demographic. lm. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) version on May 3, 2018. Accessed June 15, 2018.
- ^ a b OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD Urban Policy Reviews. OECD. 2015. lm. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 978-92-64-2303-3. ISSN 2306-9341. Archived from a original version of March 27, 2017. Accessed by December 8, 2017. Linked from the OECD here Archived December 9, 2017 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ GDP-2019 is a preliminary data, and GDP-2018 is a revision-based on the 2018 CASEN: China NBS (April 15, 2020). Home - Regional - Quarterly by Province. Press release. Accessed on April 15, 2020.
- ^ "Subnational Human Development Index". The Global Data Lab. 2020. Accessed by April 9, 2020.
- ^ Loaned, French "Pékin".
- ^ Beijing. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Archived from a original version of August 29, 2017. It was accessed on August 29, 2017.
- ^ a b Wells, John. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd edition). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- ^ China Postal Album: Showing the Postal Establishments and Postal Routes in Each Province, 1st ed., Shanghai: Directorate General of Posts, 1907
- ^ "The Beijing population reaches 21 million." The Global Times.
- ^ Figures-based on 2006 statistics in 2007 National Statistical Yearbook of China and available online at 2006年中国乡村人口数 中国人口与发展研究中心 (archive). Retrieved on April 21, 2009.
- ^ Basic Information. Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. Accessed by February 9 2008.
- ^ a b c d Beijing. The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2008.
- ^ a b "Year to date Passenger Traffic". The Airports Council International. June 23, 2014. Archived from the original version of January 29th, 2017. Accessed June 26, 2014.
- ^ "Peking." Encyclopher æ her Britannica. 25 edition, Macropæ him). lm. 468.
- ^ Top ten Cities Through History. things made unthinkable Archived from a original version on January 4, 2013. Accessed by November 28, 2016.
- ^ Beijing. Encyclopher æ Britannica. Encyclopher æ her Britannica Online. Archived from an original version of June 22, 2008. It was accessed on August 3, 2008.
- ^ Beijing. The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008. Archived from a original version of May 19, 2008. It was accessed on August 7, 2008.
- ^ 走进北京七大世界文化遗产 - 千龙网. qianlong.com (in Chinese). August 18, 2014. Archived from a original version of November 29, 2014. Accessed by November 21, 2014.
- ^ 2015年北京市高校名单(共91所). gaokao.com. May 22, 2015. Archived from a original version of November 30, 2016. Accessed by November 29, 2016.
- ^ a b Hucker, Charles O. Governmental Organization of the Ming Dynasty, p. 5 - 6. The Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 21 (Dec. 1958). The Harvard-Yenching Institute. Retrieved on October 20, 2012.
- ^ Lane Harris. "A 'Lasting Boon to All': A Note on the Postal Romanization of Place Names, 1896-1949". Twentieth Century China. 34 (1): 96-109. doi:10.1353/tcc.0.0007.
- ^ Baxter, Wm. H. &Sag art, Laurent. Baxter-Sag art Old Chinese ReconstructionPDF (1.93 MB), p. 63. 2011. Retrieved received October 11, 2011. Archived 20120425064509 in crlao.ehess.fr Error: Unknown archive URL
- ^ a b Coblin, W. South. "A Brief History of Mandarin." Journal of the American Oriental Society 120, no. 4 (2000): 537-52.
- ^ Standardization Administration of China (SAC). "GB/T-2260: Codes for the administrative of the People's Republic of Chinadivisions."
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. AD 7
- ^ Denis Twitchett, Herbert Franke, John K. Fairbank, in the Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p 454.
- ^ Beijing. UNESCO. May 17th, 2019.
- ^ Beijing's History. China Internet Information Center. Archived from a original version of May 1, 2008. Accessed May 1, 2008.
- ^ Hey, Stephen. Beijing: Special History exercise. Routledge, 2007. p. 136.
- ^ Grousset, Rene. The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. lm. 58. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
- ^ a b c "Beijing - Historical Background". The Economist. 2007. Archived from a original version of May 22, 2007.
- ^ Brian Hook, Beijing and Tianjin: Tow ards a Millennial Megalopolis, p. 2
- ^ 元大都土城遗址公园. Tuniu.com (in Chinese). Archived from a original version of February 5, 2009. Accessed June 15, 2008.
- ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-6691-X
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 23
- ^ An Illustrated Survey of Dices and Dams in Jianghan Region. World Digital Library. Archived from an original version of February 10, 2013. Accessed May 9, 2013.
- ^ The Temple of Heaven. Chinese.org. April 13th, 2001. Archived from an original version of June 20, 2008. Accessed June 14, 2008.
- ^ Robert Hymes. John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. lm. 42. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.
- ^ Renewal of Ming Dynasty Wall. Beijing This Month. February 1, 2003. Archived from a original version of May 3, 2005. Accessed June 14, 2008.
- ^ Rosenburg, Matt T. Largest Cities Through History. About.com. Archived from a original version of May 27, 2005. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 33
- ^ "Beijing - History - The Ming and Qing Dtiesynas". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Archived from a original version of May 12, 2008. Accessed June 16, 2008.
- ^ 2001 Elliott, lm. 98
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 119-120
- ^ Preston, p. 310-311
- ^ Preston, pp. 312-315
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 133-134
- ^ MacKerras & Yorke 1991, lm. AD 8
- ^ Incident on July 7, 1937. Xinhua News Agency. June 27, 2005. Archived from a original version on December 16, 2008. Accessed June 20, 2008.
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 166
- ^ Cheung, Andrew (1995). "Slogans, Symbols and Legitimacy: The Case of Wang Jingwei's Nanjing Regime". Indiana University. Archived from a original version of October 23, 2007. Accessed June 20, 2008.
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 168
- ^ 毛主席八次接见红卫兵的组织工作. April 7th, 2011. Archived July 6, 2017 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 217
- ^ Li, Dray Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 255
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 252
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 149 deaths
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 249-250
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 255-256
- ^ Picture Power:Tiananmen Standoff Archived 17 February 2009 in Wayback Machine. BBC News.
- ^ "IO C: Beijing to Host 2022 Winter Olympics". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. July 31st, 2015. Archived from a original version on August 10, 2015. It was accessed on August 11, 2015.
- ^ Business Buide to Beijing and North-East China (2006-2007 edition). Hong Kong: China Briefing Media. 2006. lm. 108. ISBN 978-988-98673-3-1. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ Shen, Wei (February 16, 2004). "Chorography to record rise and fall of Beijing's Hutongs". China Daily. Archived from a original version of March 8, 2008. Accessed June 27, 2008.
- ^ Amy Stone. "Farewell to the Hutongs: Urban Development in Beijing." Dissent magazine. Archived from a original version of May 19, 2011. Accessed July 14, 2011.
- ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, lm. 253
- ^ Gallagher, Sean. "Beijing's urban makeover: the forest destruction. Open Democracy. Archived from a original version of May 25, 2008. Accessed June 27, 2008.
- ^ Beijing. People's Daily. March 2001. Archived from a original version dated May 18, 2008. Accessed June 22, 2008.
- ^ Archived copy. Archived from a original version of March 18, 2013. Accessed by February 18 2013.
- ^ a b Extreme Temperatures Around the World. Accessed by 2013-02-21.
- ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Accessed by 2010-05-04.
- ^ Beijing. The China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System December 2013. Accessed January 1, 2014.
- ^ Burt, Christopher C. "UPDATE June 1: Record May Heat Wave in Northeast China, Korea." It's underground. Accessed by 2014-06-01.
- ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Beijing, China - Detailed climate information and monthly weather". Weather Atlas (in English). Accessed by 2019-07-09.
- ^ J. R. McNeill, Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the 20th-Century World. New York: Norton, 2000, ISBN 978-0-14-029509-2.
- ^ Mark Z. Jacobson, Son V. Nghiem, Alessandro Sorichetta, Natasha Whitney, Ring of the mega-urbanization of Beijing between 2000 and 2009. In: The Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, Issue 12, (2015), 5740-5756, doi:10.1002/2014JD023008.
- ^ Peter Sheehan, Enjiang Cheng, Alex English, Fanghong Sun, China's response to the water pollution shock. In: Nature Climate Change 4, (2014), 306-309, doi:10.1038/nclimate2197.
- ^ David G. Streetsa, Joshua S. Fub, Carey J. Jangc, Jiming Haod, Kebin Hed, Xia oyan Tange, Yuanhang Zhange, Zifa Wangf, Zuopan Lib, Qiang Zhanga, Litao Wangd, Binyu Wangc, Carolyne Yua, Air Wquality the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games accessed April 2012
- ^ a b "Green Olympics Effort Draws UN Environment Chief to Beijing". The Sundance Channel. Archived from a original version of March 20, 2012.
- ^ "Beijing petrol stations Bone close." BBC News. February 15, 2008. Archived from an original version of February 18, 2008. Accessed by February 15 2008.
- ^ Yardley, Jim. "Smoggy Beijing Plans to Cut Traffic by Half for the Olympics, Paper Says." The New York Times. Archived from a original version on April 17, 2009. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ "Beijing's Post-Olympics restrictions to take effect next month". News.xinhuanet.com. September 28, 2008. Archived from a original version on December 16, 2008. Accessed June 1, 2010.
- ^ "Only 'green' vehicles to enter Beijing". Autonews.gasgoo.com. May 22, 2009. Archived from a original version of May 27, 2009. Accessed June 1, 2010.
- ^ "China: Beijing launches the Euro 4." Automotiveworld.com January 4, 2008. Archived from a original version on April 27, 2010. Accessed June 1, 2010.
- ^ a b c James West, Mother Jones is archived April 29, 2017 in Wayback Machine. January 18, 2013.
- ^ a b Beijing to switch from coal to gas to go green. China Daily Archived 5 December 2013 in Wayback Machine. March 8, 2012.
- ^ a b Li Jing, "Beijing's water quality will worsen without coal control, Greenpeace says". South China Morning Post. February 5, 2013 Archived 15 November 2013 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Detecting the Heavy Metal Concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing", Greenpeace.org. June 8, 2013.
- ^ a b c Chang, Lyu (March 24, 2015). "Beijing shuts two more coal-fired power plants". The China Daily. Archived from an original version of June 30, 2016. Accessed May 31, 2016.
- ^ Stanway, David, July 23, 2014. "Beijing shuts big coal-fired power plant to ease -Xinhua". Reuters. Archived from an original version of June 30, 2016. Accessed May 31, 2016.
- ^ Demick, Barbara. "China celebrates 60th anniversary with instruments of war and words of peace". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from a original version of October 14, 2009. Accessed October 11, 2009.
- ^ Liu, Charles (12 May 2016). "APEC Blue" as Distant Memories as Nasty Air Returns to Beijing" The Nanfang. Archived from a original version dated November 28, 2016. Accessed by November 28, 2016.
- ^ Wong, Edward (January 12, 2013). "Beijing Air Pollution Off the Charts". The New York Times. Archived from a original version on March 3, 2017. Accessed by February 21 2017.
- ^ Wong, Edward (December 2015). "As Beijing Shuts Down Over Smog Alert, Worse-Off bors Carry On". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from a original version on December 9, 2015. Accessed by December 9, 2015.
- ^ "Beijing issues second red alert for choking smog". ABC News. ABC. December 18, 2015. Archived from a original version of December 18, 2015. Accessed by December 18, 2015.
- ^ Reuters (November 22, 2016). "Beijing to tire pollu ting cars alerts." www.atimes.com. Archived from a original version of December 2, 2016. Accessed by December 2, 2016.
- ^ Greenstone, Michael. "Four Years After the Declaring War on Pollution, China Is Winning". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from a original version on January 11th, 2019. Accessed January 15, 2019.
- ^ 首页. Beijing Municipal Web. Archived from a original version of December 29, 2015.
- ^ a b Barbara Demick (October 29, 2011). "U.S. International waterworks quality data undercut China's own." The Los Angeles Times. Archived from a original version of November 7, 2011. Accessed by November 7, 2011. (required login)
- ^ Zhao, Xia oil; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang (June 1, 2016). "Economic evaluation of health losses from pollution water in Beijing, China" Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23 (12): 11716-11728. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-6270-8. ISSN 0944-1344. PMID 26944425.
- ^ Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Arora, Mohit; Dikshit, Anil Kumar (April 1, 2017). "Burden of disease attributed to ambient PM2.5 and PM10 exposure in 190 Chinese cities." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24 (12): 11559-11572. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-8575-7. ISSN 0944-1344. PMID 28321701.
- ^ "China says it made rain to wash off the sand". NBC News. May 5, 2006. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm. BBC News. April 17th, 2006. Archived from a original version of September 30, 2009. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ Weaver, Lisa Rose. "More than a dust storm in a Chinese poke". CNN. Archived from a original version on January 13, 2007. Accessed by February 7 2008.
- ^ "Beijing - Administration and society - Government." Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Archived from an original version of June 9, 2008. Accessed June 16, 2008.
- ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码. The National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Archived April 5, 2013 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 2017年度北京市土地利用现状汇总表. ghgtw.beijing.gov.cn. Archived from a original version on January 13, 2019. Accessed January 13, 2019.
- ^ The Census of the Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1st edition). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-660-2.
- ^ 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-659-6.
- ^ "中国民政统计年鉴2012"
- ^ a b c d 北京市第三中级人民法院、北京市人民检察院第三分院同日成立. Xinhua (in Chinese). August 6, 2013. Archived September 29, 2013 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 北京市高级人民法院关于我市中级人民法院管辖调整有关问题的规定(暂行). chinacourt.org (in Chinese). August 2, 2013. Archived 14 August 2013 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b The historical GDP of Beijing published on Beijing Statistical Yearbook 2017, ALSO see Beijing'GDP Revison (Chinese) Archived 13 December 2017 in Wayback Machine. (October 10, 2017)
- ^ "Jones Lang LaSalle Research Report - Five years after the Olympics - Growth in Beijing has continued, what to be future?" Archived 18 May 2014 in Wayback Machine. August 2013
- ^ Shapiro, Ariel R. "Beijing is 'Billionaire Capital of the World'". Archived from the original version of July 9, 2018. Accessed by July 19, 2018.
- ^ "Beijing is new 'billionaire capital'". BBC News. February 25, 2016. Archived from the original version of July 19th, 2018. Accessed by July 19, 2018.
- ^ Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate to IMF WEO (October 2017 Archived 14 February 2006 in Archive-It) data; The Exchange rate of CN is according to US$ is to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook Archived October 20, 2015 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b c d e f g d of h k L m Beijing investigatory team (国家统计局北京调查总队) (February 13, 2014). 北京市2013年国民经济和社会发展统计公报. Beijing Bureau of Statistics.
- ^ 北京五年淘汰140余家"三高"企业. November 17th, 2010. Archived November 29, 2014 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ Capital change new branch to step up eastward relocation. People's Daily Online. October 23, 2005. Archived from a original version on December 16, 2008. Accessed October 24, 2008.
- ^ Spencer, Richard. "Beijing aband ounces Mao's dream of workers" paradise. The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from a original version on August 19, 2008. Accessed by April 25, 2019.
- ^ 六大功能区. Archived 14 September 2013 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ Tu, Lufang (涂露芳) (October 9, 2013). 六大功能区创造北京四成多. The Beijing Daily. Archived October 14, 2013 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 北京市统计局 六大高端产业功能区主要经济指标. Beijing Bureau of Statistics. 2014-08-12. Archived November 29, 2014 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ Shi Jing Shan. The Beijing Economic Information Center. Archived from a original version of November 20, 2008. Accessed June 22, 2008.
- ^ [The Beijing Economic and Social Development Statistical Brilliant 2014] (in Chinese). Beijing Bureau of Statistics. February 12, 2015. Archived from a original version of March 1, 2016. Accessed May 1, 2015.
- ^ CNBC.com, Justina Crabtree; special to (September 20, 2016). "A tale of megacities: China's largest metropolyses." CNBC. Archived from a original version on December 9, 2017. Accessed by December 8, 2017.
- ^ a b "Age Composition and Dependency Ratio of Population by Region (2004) in China Statistics 2005". Archived from a original version on December 4, 2010. Accessed July 5th, 2010.
- ^ a b c d 北京市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据情况. Beijing Bureau of Statistics.
- ^ 北京市少数民族人口状况. Beijing Bureau of Statistics. May 30, 2011.
- ^ 在北京外国人数量或已达20万人 超过市人口总数1. October 9, 2010. Archived November 29, 2014 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b Roxburgh, Helen. "China's plan radical to limit the populations of Beijing and Shanghai". the Guardian. Archived from a original version on April 9, 2018. It was accessed on August 16, 2018.
- ^ China to move half a million people from Beijing to new city
- ^ A plan to build a city from scratch that will be dwarf New York
- ^ Jingxi. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Archived from a original version of May 3, 2008. Accessed June 16, 2008.
- ^ "Beijing - Chinese Cloisonné Enamelware". Archived from an original version of June 11, 2008.
- ^ Levin, and (June 15, 2008). "Beijing Lights Up the Night". The New York Times. Archived from a original version on April 17, 2009. Accessed June 15, 2008.
- ^ "Beijing, Jeonju, and named Norwich UNESCO Creative Cities | ASEF culture360". culture360.asef.org (in English). Archived from a original version of October 4, 2018. Accessed October 3, 2018.
- ^ "Beijing, Places of a Lifetime". National Geographic Society. Archived from a original version on August 3, 2008. It was accessed on August 3, 2008.
- ^ "The Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing ynas Dties" (PDF). UNESCO World Heritage Center. December 29th, 1986. Archived from the original version (PDF) of March 26, 2009. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ "Beihai Park Behind Behai Park locates Hou Hai, which is one of the most popular tourist places. Hou hai is the largest of the lakes, along with Qianhai (lit.) "Front Lake") and Xihai. the "Western Lake"), that comprise Shichahai, the collective name for the three northern-most lakes in central Beijing. Since the early 2000s, the hutong neighborhood Houhai become Houhas known for its nightlife as many resid Tools such as the lake shore have been converted into restaurants, bars, and cafes". UNECO World Heritage. Archived from the original version of July 2, 2007.
- ^ Littlewood, Misty and Mark Littlewood. Gateways to Beijing: a travel guide to Beijing. Armor Publishing Pte lm. 182. ISBN 978-981-4222-12-9.
- ^ "Summer Palace, and Imperial Garden in Beijing". UNESCO World Heritage Center. Archived from the original version of July 24th, 2008. It was accessed on August 4, 2008.
- ^ "Temple of Heaven: And Imperial Sacrifice Altar in Beijing." UNESCO World Heritage Center. Archived from a original version on August 1, 2008. It was accessed on August 4, 2008.
- ^ (Chinese) [北京地区博物馆名录(截止2008年6月)] January 6, 2009
- ^ About Beijing. Archived from a original version of September 29, 2008.
- ^ a b "Beijing's Museums & Galleries". Archived from a original version on August 13, 2008. It was accessed on August 19, 2008.
- ^ Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dtiesynas. UNESCO World Heritage Center. December 10, 2003. Archived from a original version of August 2009. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ "Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian". UNESCO World Heritage Center. Archived from the original version of July 23rd, 2008. It was accessed on August 4, 2008.
- ^ The Great Wall. UNESCO World Heritage Center. Archived from the original version of July 31st, 2008. It was accessed on August 4, 2008.
- ^ a b 北京的宗教文化. July 11th, 2008. Archived April 16, 2017 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ Lai, Hongyi. The China's Governance Model: Flexibility and Durability of Pragmatic Authoritarianism. Routledge, 2016. ISBN 1-317-85952-9. p. 167 deaths
- ^ China General Social Survey 2009. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islamic by province, p. 29 Archived April 27, 2017 in Wayback Machine. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
- ^ 平谷轩辕山国际旅游区概念性规划. zsfh.org.Archived 2 February 2017 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 2020世界休闲大会战略规划 - 北京平谷旅游发展重大项目储备规划. fanhuazhida.com.Archived 21 January 2017 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 北京市道教协会协会简介. Beijing Taoist Association. Archived 14 August 2015 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 伊斯兰教简介. Beijing Bureau of Ethnic Affairs.Archived 30 January 2017 in Wayback Machine. Accessed April 4, 2016
- ^ 北京市清真寺文物等级. Beijing Bureau of Ethnic Affairs. Archived 16 April 2016 in Wayback Machine. Accessed April 4, 2016
- ^ 朝阳文化—文化遗产. September 24, 2015. Archived from a original version of September 24, 2015. Accessed by February 21 2019.
- ^ 北京市部分清真寺介绍. Beijing Bureau of Ethnic Affairs.Archived 16 April 2016 in Wayback Machine. Accessed April 4, 2016
- ^ Eric Widmer, the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking During the Eighteenth Century, p. 23, 1976, ISBN 0-674-78129-5 Google Books Archived 6 September 2015 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup Archived 27 May 2017 in Wayback Machine., FIBA.com, Retrieved received March 92016.
- ^ "Beijing and Zhangjiakou launch joint bid to host 2022 Olympic Games". insidethegames.biz. Archived from a original version of November 5, 2013. Accessed by November 5th, 2013.
- ^ "IO C awards 2022 Winter Olympics to Beijing". Archived from the original version of July 15th, 2017. It was accessed on August 24, 2017.
- ^ Some 350,000 residents were expected to be located to make room for the construc of stadiums for the 2008 Summer Olympics. Davis, Mike. Planet of Slums. Verso. lm. 106. ISBN 978-1-84467-022-2. Accessed January 3, 2017.
- ^ "Beijing Olympics Bird's Nest ready". BBC News. June 28, 2008. Archived from the original version of July 19th, 2008. Accessed June 28, 2008.
- ^ Welcome. chinabandy.org. Archived from a original version on March 4, 2016. Accessed by November 10, 2016.
- ^ Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Communiqué on the National Economy and Social Development of Beijing in 2019. The Beijing Stat Bureau.
- ^ 北京市火车站大全. oklx.com. Archived from a original version of March 30, 2006. It was accessed on August 8, 2011.
- ^ "Beijingers spend lives on road road as traffic congestion worsens". China Daily. Xinhua News Agency. October 6, 2003. Archived from the original version of July 24th, 2009. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- ^ Automobile numbers could be capped. China Daily. Archived from a original version of November 9, 2010. Accessed May 13, 2010.
- ^ "Beijing city to have five mln car on roads by year end". Gasgoo. May 12, 2010. Archived from a original version on January 2, 2013. Accessed May 13, 2010.
- ^ "To Tackle Traffic Hour, Beijing Sets New Car Plate Quota, Limits Out-of-Towners". ChinaAutoWeb.com. Archived from a original version of December 28, 2010. Accessed January 13, 2011.
- ^ "Beijing Standardizes Translations of Road Signs". Shanghai Daily at china.org.cn. March 24, 2006. Archived from an original version of February 8, 2011. Accessed October 28, 2018.
- ^ 北京大兴国际机场正式投运. Xinhua. September 25, 2019. Accessed by October 28, 2019 - via Sina Finance.
- ^ 首都新机场跑道呈三纵一横分布 规划7条跑道. news.carnoc.com. Archived from a original version of March 5, 2016. Accessed January 12, 2016.
- ^ "China plans to build world's biggest airport near Beijing". In.news.yahoo.com. September 10th, 2011. Archived from a original version of May 19, 2012. Accessed October 31, 2011.
- ^ Beijing grants three-day visa-free access. TTGmice. December 6, 2012. Archived from an original version of June 5, 2013. Accessed by December 7, 2012.
- ^ "Beijing 72-hour Visa-free" ChinaTour.Net Archived 18 March 2015 in Wayback Machine. Accessed June 6, 2014
- ^ "30 subway lines to cover Beijing by 2020". China Daily. May 28, 2010. Archived from a original version of August 23, 2010. Accessed May 30, 2010.
- ^ "Beijing to Increase Public Transportation Fare Prices Next Month". english.cri.cn. Archived from a original version of December 22, 2015. Accessed by December 24, 2015.
- ^ Watts, Jonathan (January 24, 2010). "Campaign to boost cycling in Beijing". The Guardian. UK. Archived from a original version of September 9, 2013. Accessed March 10 2011.
- ^ Xin, Wen. "Beijing's first dedicated bike lane trips traffic congestion." China Daily. Accessed by 2020-05-31.
- ^ "Office, Mobike, BlueGogo: China's Messy Bikeshare Market." What's on Weibo. Archived from a original version on August 6, 2017. It was accessed on August 13, 2017.
- ^ 北京市自然保护区名录(截至2011年底). The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. August 24, 2012. Archived from a original version of October 23, 2012. Accessed by April 6, 2013.
- ^ 北京一级保护野生动物. Beijing Wildlife Conservation Association. Archived from a original version on April 16, 2013. Accessed by April 4, 2013.
- ^ 北京二级保护野生动物. Beijing Wildlife Conservation Association. Archived from a original version of December 26, 2007. Accessed by April 4, 2013.
- ^ Michael Rank, Wild leopards of Beijing, Danwei.org Archived 2 May 2013 in Wayback Machine. July 31, 2007
- ^ (Chinese) The Beijing Aquatic Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center Accessed on April 5, 2013, Archived on August 23, 2011 in Wayback Machine.
- ^ 70年解密大足鼠耳蝠吃鱼. sxrb.com (in Chinese). April 14, 2007. Archived from a original version of March 19, 2014. Accessed by September 19th, 2013.
- ^ 北京:候鸟翱翔野鸭湖. November 16th, 2016. Archived from a original version dated November 28, 2016. Accessed by November 27, 2016.
- ^ a b c 北京开始"清网行动"保护候鸟 森林公安公布举报电话, 北京晚报. qianlong.com (in Chinese). October 30, 2016. Archived from a original version dated November 28, 2016. Accessed by November 27, 2016.
- ^ Beijing Cuckoo Project Archived 28 November 2016 in Wayback Machine. Accessed 28 November 2016
- ^ "With a koo's Journey from China, a Mystery is Solved, and Cheers Go Up" N.Y. Times Archived November 28, 2016 in Wayback Machine. November 11, 2016
- ^ "北京集中一个月打击非法捕售鸟 抓获36名违法者" 新京报. The Beijing News. Xinhua News. October 31, 2016. Archived from a original version of November 9, 2016. Accessed by November 27, 2016.
- ^ a b 首都之窗-北京市政务门户网站-市花市树. eBeijing.gov.cn. Archived from a original version on April 13, 2013.
- ^ 北京市市树 - 国槐. bjkp.gov.cn. February 18, 2004. Archived from a original version on April 13, 2008. Accessed by November 19, 2016.
- ^ Sister Cities. Beijing Municipal Government. Accessed by 2009-06-23.
- ^ Paris and Rome are a partner due to an exclusive agreement between those two cities. "Le jumelage avec Rome." Municipal de Paris. Accessed by 2008-07-09.
- ^ NYC's Sister Cities. Sister City Program of the City of New York. 2006. Accessed September 1st, 2008.
- ^ Protocol and International Affairs. DC Office of the Secretary. Accessed by July 12th, 2008.
- ^ Twin cities of Riga. The Riga City Council. Accessed July 27, 2009.
- ^ "Prefeitura.Sp - Descenalized Cooperation."
- ^ "International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. Accessed June 1, 2010.
- ^ "Canberra's international relationships - Canberra's international relationships." www.cmd.act.gov.au. Accessed October 20, 2009.
- ^ Sister Cities of Manila. © 2008-2009 Government of Manila. Archived from an original version of June 7, 2008. Accessed July 2, 2009. Remove external links in parameters
- ^ "winning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Munity icipal of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Accessed June 23, 2009.
- Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). The Imperial itals Capof China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. lm. 304 pages. ISBN 9781845950095.
- Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Palo Alto, California, United States: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804746842. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
- Li, Lillian; Dray-Novey, Alison; Kong, Haili (2007). Beijing: From Imperial Capital to Olympic City. New York, New York, United States: The Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403964734.
- Cammelli, Stefano Storia at Pechino e in come divenne capitale della China, Bologna Il Mulino, 2004. ISBN 978-88-15-0910-5
- Harper, Damian, Beijing: City Guide, 7th Edition, Oakland, California: Lonely Planet Publications, 2007.
- Harper, Damian, Beijing: City Guide, 6th Edition, Oakland, California: Lonely Planet Publications, 2005. ISBN 1-74059-782-6.
- MacKerras, Colin; Yorke, Amanda. The Cambridge Handbook of Contemporary China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38755-2. Accessed by July 22, 2009.
|Learn about Beijing on other Wikimedia projects:|
|Definition and translation of Wiktionary|
|Image and media from Commons|
|News from Wikinews|
|Quote from Wikipedia|
|Source text from Wikisource|
|Books by WikMy|
- Beijing (Chinese) Government Website and (English)
- Economic profiles for Beijing in HKTDC
Lin'an (Song dynasty)
Chinese capital (called Dadu of Yuan Dadu)
Nanjing (Ming dynasty)
Nanjing (Ming dynasty)
Nanjing (Republic of China)
Nanjing (Republic of China)
Capital of the People's Republic of China
The capital that is now